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雙語對照:2017年李克強總理答中外記者問


來源:新華網    作者:天之聰教育   時間:2017-03-22 07:41   點擊: 次  

【李克強】剛才我聽主持人說由于來的人多,很多記者提前兩三個小時就到這里了,大家很辛苦,也充分表現了你們的職業精神,我對中外記者對中國兩會報道所付出的辛勞表示感謝。時間有限,我們單刀直入,我愿意回答記者朋友們提出的問題。

Premier Li Keqiang:Just now, I heard the spokesperson say that today we have many journalists here. I heard that many of you arrived here 2 or 3 hours in advance. I thank you for your attention. Since we have limited time, I invite you to be direct with your questions.

【美國有線電視新聞網記者】總理,早上好。特朗普總統一直對華發表一些批評性言論,表示中國偷竊了美國就業崗位,批評中國匯率政策以及中國在維護地區安全上做的不夠。我們還了解到,很有可能最早就在下個月,中美兩國元首可能會實現會晤。基于此,我們對于美國希望從中國得到什么已經有了一些概念,我想問,中國希望從美國那兒得到什么?中國對于一個健康可持續發展中美關系的底線是什么?您是否有信心實現這樣的中美關系的發展?還是覺得前路比較艱難?

【CNN】President Trump has consistently criticized China for stealing U.S. jobs, manipulating currency exchange and not doing enough to maintain regional security. I understand that President Xi and Trump may meet as early as next month. What do you expect to receive from the U.S.?

【李克強】你的提問讓我回想起去年9月份我去聯大出席系列高級別會議期間到美國紐約經濟俱樂部演講,就有人向我提問,當時美國總統大選正在白熱化階段,如果新的總統當選,中美關系會不會有大的改變?我的回答是,不管誰當選美國總統,雖然中美關系經歷過風風雨雨,但是一直前行,我對此持樂觀態度。

Premier Li Keqiang:Your question reminded me of my speech last year in New York, when the U.S. presidential campaign was white hot. I was asked how the China-US relations would develop when a new U.S. president takes office. My answer was that whoever becomes the new U.S. President, China-US relations will keep moving forward despite the changing circumstances.

特朗普總統當選以后,習近平主席和特朗普總統通了電話,兩位元首都表示要共同推進中美關系向前發展。特朗普總統和美國新政府的高官也都明確表示,要堅持一個中國的政策,這是中美關系的政治基礎,不是風云變幻能夠動搖的,也動搖不得。有了這樣一個政治基礎,中美合作的前景是廣闊的。

Soon after Trump became the U.S. president, he and President Xi Jinping talked on the phone. The two leaders re-emphasized the one-China principle. Many senior officials from both countries agreed to enhance China-US relations, too. The one-China principle is the corner stone of the China-US relations. This is the political basis on which China and the U.S. can continue to develop ties.

我們之所以對中美關系前行持樂觀態度,是因為中美建交幾十年了,已經有了廣泛的共同利益。當然,我們之間也有分歧,比如你剛才提到的像在就業崗位、匯率等問題上有些看法不一,或者在安全問題上也有不同認識。

These days, the diplomatic departments are working on facilitating a meeting between the leaders of the two countries. Over the many decades since China and the U.S. established diplomatic ties, there have been many disagreements on employment, exchange rate and security issues, among other issues.

但是,我們雙方都需要保持戰略定力,加強溝通,坐下來談,增進相互了解和理解,現在兩國外交部門正就兩國元首會晤進行溝通。我想,中美關系不僅會關系兩國利益,而且涉及到地區和世界的和平安全穩定,我們要維護它前行。

Facing these differences, we should continue our exchanges and sit down to talk calmly to enhance communication. China-US relations not only affect the interests of the two countries but also regional and global peace and stability; this is why we need to  keep our ties moving forward.

至于貿易問題,我在兩會參加代表團討論時,有來自外貿企業的人大代表跟我說,雖然中方是貿易順差,但是企業生產的產品利潤90%以上是美國企業拿走了,中國的生產企業拿到的利潤最低只有2%—3%。據有關統計,光去年一年,中美的貿易、投資給美國創造的就業崗位過百萬個。當然,各方的統計方法可能不一,沒關系,我們坐下來談,總是會有共識,即便一時達不成共識,可以擱置分歧,智者的辦法是擴大共同利益,分歧點所占比例就會更小。

In terms of trade issues, although China currently has a surplus, more than 90 percent of Chinese companies’ profits were taken by the United States. We have statistics showing that last year China-US trade and investment created more than one million jobs in the United States. But if we cannot reach an agreement at once, we can continue talking, which is what wise people do.

我想起前兩天看到國際上有一個權威智庫發表文章,他們認為,如果中美發生貿易戰的話,首先受損的是外資企業,首當其沖的是美資企業。我們不希望看到打貿易戰,貿易戰帶不來貿易公平,而且雙方都受損。現在全世界都比較關心中美關系,中方希望,中美關系不管有什么樣的坎坷,還是要向前走、向好處走。中美兩國人民都是偉大的人民,我們有智慧來管控分歧,我們有需要也有條件來擴大共同利益。謝謝。

Recently I read a report by a reputable foreign think tank. It said that if trade wars broke out between China and the United States, those suffering first would be foreign-funded enterprises in China, particularly those funded by the U.S. Our hope on the Chinese side is that trade relations will move forward in the positive direction. Chinese people and Americans are both great peoples. We have the wisdom to control our differences, and also have the need and conditions to enlarge our common interests. Thank you.

【中央人民廣播電臺記者】總理您好,我們注意到這幾年中國經濟的增長速度在持續放緩,今年又把經濟增長的預期目標下調到6.5%左右,這是否會對世界經濟造成不利的影響?另外有人認為中國經濟存在很多風險,特別是在金融方面的風險,中國是否能夠在世界經濟疲軟這個大背景下繼續扮演世界經濟的推動者這樣一個角色?謝謝。

【China National Radio】The growth rate of the Chinese economy has slowed in recent years. This year, China has set its GDP growth target at around 6.5 percent. Will this adversely affect the global economy? Moreover, some people think that there are some risks in the Chinese economy, especially in the financial sector. Do you think that the Chinese economy can still remain the global economic engine driving the global economy while global economic growth is sluggish?

【李克強】我們把今年經濟增速定在6.5%左右,我看到當時有外媒報道說中國是溫和下調了增速。其實,增長6.5%這個速度不低了,也很不容易。我曾經在中國少林寺陪同外賓看過武僧表演,幾歲的小武僧一口氣翻十幾個跟頭不費勁,而練過十幾年武功的青年武僧翻三五個跟頭就了不得了,主要是塊頭大了。如果今年中國實現經濟增長目標,增量比去年還要大,因為這是在我們經濟總量已經超過74萬億元人民幣,相當于11萬億美元基礎上的增長,而且可以帶動1100萬人以上的就業。這符合經濟規律,也可以使注意力更多地放到提高質量和效益上來,對世界經濟增長的貢獻率不會低,中國仍然是世界經濟復蘇乏力情況下推動全球增長的重要力量。

Premier Li Keqiang:We set this year’s economic growth at 6.5 percent. I’ve read foreign media that described it as China’s “moderate downward adjustment.” As a matter of fact, I should point out that 6.5 percent is not a low rate and won’t be easy to achieve; I once visited the Shaolin Temple with some foreign friends for a martial arts performance. I saw that the young monks can do a dozen of somersaults at one go very easily, but it would be quite a feat for adult monks to do even several – this is because of their different sizes. If we are able to achieve the 6.5 percent target this year, that will generate more economic output than last year, because this is achieved on the basis of 74 trillion yuan, or about US$11 trillion. This can generate 11 million jobs. It is in accordance with economic rules and this way we can focus more on the quality of China’s growth. I believe China will continue to be a strong driving force for the global economic growth.

至于說到風險,今年世界經濟政治不確定的因素很多,這是很大的外部風險。對中國來講,不發展是最大的風險。我們保持中高速的穩定增長,本身就是在為世界穩定做貢獻。當然,我們自己也有一些不可忽視的風險,剛剛你講到像金融領域。對于這些風險點,我們是高度關注的,發現了會及時處置、靶向治療,不會讓它蔓延。當然,我還必須要強調,中國金融體系總體是安全的,不會發生系統性風險。因為我們有很多應對工具,儲備政策許多還沒有用。我們的財政赤字率沒超過3%,商業銀行資本充足率在13%,撥備覆蓋率176%,這些都超過許多國家,特別是國際所確定的相關標準。所以我們是有能力防范風險的,當然,我們在中高速行進當中也會系緊安全帶,不會讓風險“急性發作”,更不會發生區域性或者系統性的風險。謝謝。

As for risks, there are many uncertainties in the global economy and politics, and this can be a huge external risk. For China, lack of development will be the greatest risk. As long as we maintain a medium to high growth rate, we will be making a contribution to the global economy. Of course, we have some risks that we cannot neglect, for instance, financial risks as you mentioned. We are watching these risks closely and we will deal with them in time and with focused measures and won’t let them run rampant. Of course, I’ll point out that China’s financial industry is overall safe and does not have systematic risks. This is because we have a lot of tools at our hands. Our fiscal deficit is less than 3 percent, the capital adequacy ratio of commercial banks stands at 13 percent and the provision coverage ratio is 176 percent — all of these are better than many other countries, especially by the standards set by the international community. Therefore, we are able to avoid and prevent risks. We will buckle up during our medium- to high-speed ride, so as not to have a sudden risk, or a regional or systematic risk. Thank you.

【彭博社記者】我的中文不夠,對不起。隨著美國收縮它在全球貿易體系中所發揮的作用,包括退出TPP,似乎中國愿意在全球貿易中發揮領導性作用。您和習近平主席都倡導自由貿易、開放型經濟以及全球化。但同時我們看到,中國也在實施不公平貿易,開放自身經濟速度還不快方面遭到批評。請問,在未來一年,中國方面會采取什么措施讓國際社會確信中國是要致力于推進自由貿易和開放型經濟的?

【Bloomberg】My Chinese is not good, sorry. The United States is shrinking its role in the global trade system, such as its withdrawal from the TPP. China seems to be poised to play a leadership role in global trade. You and President Xi Jinping both advocate free trade, an open economy and globalization. At the same time, China received criticism for unfair trade practices and measures for curbing opening speed. In the coming year, what will China do to make others believe that China is committed to free trade and open economy?

【李克強】首先,在全球化進程受到一些非議或者在某些方面有挫折的情況下,中國始終堅持一貫的立場,那就是:維護經濟全球化,支持自由貿易。這本身就表明中國是要推動開放。實際上,全球化使各國都受益了,不過在這個過程中也有一些問題,像分配等方面,但它們不是全球化本身的問題,而是應對的問題。中方也愿意和世界各國一道來改善全球治理體系。全球化和世界的和平發展合作是一體的、不可分的。關起門來以鄰為壑,解決不了問題。

Premier Li Keqiang:First, in a process of globalization that is faced with controversy and has suffered setbacks in some respects, China regularly advocates economic globalization and free trade. It shows clearly that China will promote opening-up. Actually, globalization benefits each country, even though some problems arise in the process, such as in the sector of distribution. We need to tackle these problems rather than reject globalization. China is willing to cooperate with other countries to enhance the global governance system. Globalization is inseparable from the development of world peace. The closed door and beggar-thy-neighbor policies cannot resolve problems.

中國和世界許多國家一樣,是全球化的受益者,這其中也因為中國一直在堅持不斷地擴大開放。中國首先要把自己的事情辦好,但關起門來也辦不好自己的事情。所以我們的開放大門會越開越大。當然,開放是一個漸進的過程。回過頭來看,這幾十年來,我們的步伐一直是向前進的。

去年,我們吸引外資在發展中國家仍居首位,達到1260億美元。世界銀行對中國營商環境的評估,去年和2013年相比上升了18位。我們推動上海自貿試驗區建設,已經逐步擴大到11個省區市,而且還會把普遍適用的經驗向全國推廣。我們還要在今年舉辦“一帶一路”國際合作高峰論壇,不斷推出擴大開放的措施。我們也和很多國家提議,建立自由貿易區或者進行投資貿易協定的談判,這些都是有利于雙向開放的措施。有一點我想大家要明確,就是你的開放力度越大,開放程度越深,這里面的摩擦相應就會越多,但是占的比例會越來越小。對此,我們是有信心的。我們就是要打造開放的高地、投資的熱土,和世界共享發展機遇。

Like many other countries, China is the beneficiary of globalization as China is consistently advancing its opening-up. China’s priority is to realize its own development, but closing doors cannot realize that. We will continue to step up opening-up, which is a gradual process. In retrospect, we have been moving forward with the process over the past decades. Last year, China was still the largest recipient of FDI among all developing countries, with the figure reaching US$126 billion. According to the evaluation on business environment in China made by the World Bank, China jumped 18 places last year compared with 2013. We advanced the construction of Shanghai FTZ, expanded the coverage scale to 11 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, and will promote this across the whole country. We will hold the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation this year to put forward more opening-up measures. We proposed to establish a Free Trade Zone or make negotiations on investment trade treaties with many other countries. These are all two-way opening-up measures. We need to know that wider and deeper opening-up will bring about friction, but, it will ease. We are confident about the process. We will build up opening-up and attract more investment to share development opportunities with the whole world.

至于維護全球貿易的自由化,這需要世界各國共同努力,因為天下是天下人的天下。我們對已經達成或者希望達成的一些區域貿易安排一直持開放態度,也樂見其成。只要是有利于貿易自由化的,我們都會去參與、去推進,而且中國人明白,要用開放抓住全球化的機遇,不管有什么挑戰都不能錯過。

關于區域的自由貿易安排,涉及中國的,有條件的,我們持開放態度,愿意去進行推動。我們不會越俎代庖,不會超越區域去做不應是中國做的事情。謝謝。

As for preserving global trade liberalization, it requires the joint effort of every country because the world belongs to everyone who lives in it. We always assume an open attitude to regional trade arrangements, including those established and those that are under discussion. We would also love to see progress in this regard. We will participate in and promote whatever facilitates trade liberalization. We Chinese understand that we have to seize with an open attitude the opportunities of globalization and not miss them, no matter what challenges we face. With regard to the arrangement on regional free trade, as long as China is involved and has the conditions to participate, we will assume an open attitude to promote it. We won’t meddle in others’ affairs. We won’t go beyond China’s regional scope to do things we shouldn’t. Thank you.

【人民日報記者】總理您好。我們注意到這四年來您一直都抓住簡政放權這件事情不放松,今年政府工作報告也顯示,您所要求的本屆政府要精簡1/3的行政審批事項的任務已經提前完成了,那么剩下的2/3呢?這項工作要不要繼續往下推進,如果要繼續的話您準備怎么推進?謝謝。

【People’s Daily】Mr. Premier, for the past four years, we have seen that you have been highly focused on streamlining administration and delegating power. We’ve also seen in this year’s government work report that the goal of the current administration to cut the number of items that require government review by one third has been fulfilled ahead of schedule. So what about the remaining two thirds? Will this reform be pushed forward, and if so, what specific steps will be taken?

【李克強】簡政放權核心是要轉變政府職能,處理好政府和市場的關系,這不是一朝一夕之功。我們的確已經完成了本屆政府成立之初確定的任務,但是在推進的過程中發現這里面的名堂多了,不僅是審批權,還有名目繁多的行政許可、資格認證、各種奇葩證明,讓企業不堪重負的收費等等,這些都屬于簡政放權要繼續推進的內容。我們就是要在推進過程中,讓政府職能得到轉變,把更多的精力放到該管的事情上來。政府確實管了一些不該管、也不應屬于自己管的事情,它束縛了市場主體的手腳,降低了行政效率,甚至影響了政府的公信力。因此,我們必須進行自我革命,刀刃向內,我一直說要用壯士斷腕的精神堅韌不拔地加以推進,不管遇到什么樣的問題,甚至會有較大阻力,但是要相信我們有足夠的韌性。

Premier Li Keqiang: The core of this reform is to transform government functions and balance the relations between the government and the market. This reform cannot be accomplished overnight. The goal of cutting the number of items that require government review has been met, but in this process we have actually discovered a whole variety of other problems involved. In addition to the requirement of government review and approval, there are also various requirements for administrative permits, certification of qualification and administrative fees for our businesses. So these will be the areas of focus for this government reform. Essentially, this reform will help the government focus on things that it should focus on, because some issues we used to be focused on in the past may tie down our businesses, cut government efficiency and even the government’s public credibility. So this is a self-targeted reform for the government, and we are fully determined to pushing it forward until our job is done no matter what obstacles or even resistance we may encounter.

簡政放權、放管結合、優化服務是三位一體的,也就是政府要把更多的精力放到事中事后監管和優化對人民群眾的服務上,把市場的準入放寬了,那就要為市場主體公平競爭營造環境。對那些假冒偽劣、坑蒙拐騙、侵犯知識產權以及涉及食品、藥品、環保等群眾密切關注的違法違規問題要堅決查處。我們要通過“互聯網+政務服務”,讓群眾少跑腿、少煩心、多順心。要把更多的力量用于扶貧攻堅、棚戶區改造、義務教育、基本醫療等諸多民生關注的方面。

Streamlining administration, the integration of control and decontrol and regulation and improvement of government services form an integral whole. The government needs to improve its oversight during and after the process and provide better services for the businesses and people. When market access is widened, the government needs to ensure a fair playing field for all market entities, and violations of laws and regulations will be seriously dealt with, such as making and selling fake foods and goods, cheating the market place and violations of intellectual property rights. All these areas are of high concern to our general public, involving food, drug safety and environment, etc. The government also needs to use the internet and other technologies to ensure that government administrative services will be more easily accessible to our people. The government also needs to focus more on areas like poverty alleviation, rebuilding of shanty towns, providing compulsory education and meeting people’s basic health care needs, all of which concern people’s livelihood.

簡言之,就是要向依法依規的市場主體發出“前行、前行、再前行”的信號;向依靠勞動創業創新者亮起“可以、可以、再可以”的綠燈;對那些違法違規不良行為,就要及時亮出黃牌,甚至出紅牌罰他下場。謝謝。

So what the government should do is to send a message of “Yes” to all law-abiding market entities, to flash the green “go ahead” light to all hard-working entrepreneurs and innovators and to seriously deal with all violations of laws and regulation, showing them resolutely a yellow card, and even red card, to send them out of the market. Thank you.

【日本經濟新聞社記者】謝謝主持人。總理,您好。我是日本經濟新聞社的記者。我想問一個關于朝鮮半島的問題。美國國務卿蒂勒森先生從今天起訪問日本,之后他還要訪問中國和韓國。外界認為此訪的重點之一是討論朝鮮半島問題。當前,朝鮮繼續試射導彈,推進核武計劃,導致東北亞局勢非常緊張。在此背景下,中國打算采取什么樣的措施和行動來緩解緊張的地區局勢?中方將如何同日本等相關國家合作,解決所謂的朝核問題。謝謝。

【Nikkei】U.S. Secretary of State Tillerson is visiting Japan starting from today and will visit China and South Korea later. It’s widely believed that one of his major goals is to discuss the situation on the Korean Peninsula. The DPRK has conducted several missile tests and continues to push forward its nuclear weapon programs, resulting in tensions in Northeast Asia. What will China do with the other parties concerned to solve the problem?

【李克強】中國在朝鮮半島問題上的立場是明確的、一貫的,堅持實現半島無核化,堅持維護半島的和平穩定,堅持通過對話協商解決問題。對于聯合國已經通過的相關決議,中國一直是態度鮮明,而且是全面嚴格執行。中國始終是核不擴散體系的堅定維護者。的確,近來半島乃至于東北亞出現了一些緊張的氣氛,緊張很可能會導致沖突,會使相關各方都受損。我們希望的是,各方共同努力,把緊張的氣氛降下來,使大家都回到對話的軌道上來,最終解決問題。按常理說,誰也不愿意自己的家門口整天鬧個不停。謝謝。

Premier Li Keqiang: China maintains a clear-cut stance on this issue. To achieve denuclearization of the peninsula and maintain peace and stability there, we need to sit down and talk. China supports all resolutions of the United Nations and firmly upholds the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Tensions may lead to conflicts and will harm all sides. We hope that through the efforts of all the parties concerned, the tensions can be eased, and negotiations can resume. Anyway, no one wants to see chaos on his doorstep. Thank you.

【中央電視臺記者】您常說就業是民生之本。有報道說,您每個月在看經濟指標的時候,非常關注就業的變化。我們看到在政府工作報告中,您特別提到今年我國的就業壓力加大。請問總理,今年會不會出現群體性的失業問題?

【CCTV:】You often say that employment is the foundation of people’s livelihood. And of all the economic indicators, it is the statistics concerning jobs that you care the most about. In the government work report, you pointed out that this year, the government may face a more daunting task of providing employment. My question is, do you expect large scale unemployment in particular sectors this year?

【李克強】可能稍加注意你們就會發現,在政府工作報告所提出的主要經濟社會發展指標當中,有一項是抬高的,那就是今年我們要新增城鎮就業1100萬人以上,比去年的目標增加100萬人。我們之所以要有6.5%左右的經濟增速,穩增長主要還是要保就業。因為就業對我們這樣一個13億多人口的大國來說是最大的民生。就業是經濟發展的基礎,是財富增長的來源,也是居民收入的主渠道。我們這幾年一直在實施積極的就業政策,已經連續4年實現新增城鎮就業1300萬人以上,今年更是強調就業優先,就是要保證能夠實現比較充分的就業,把失業率控制在較低的水平。

Premier Li Keqiang: If you read the government work report carefully, you will notice that we have adjusted a target upward among all the major economic and social development targets for 2017, namely we will create over 11 million new urban jobs, one million more on top of the target we set for 2016. The fact is, we have projected around 6.5% GDP growth mainly to support job creation. Employment is of paramount importance for such a large country as China with 1.3 billion-plus people. Employment is the foundation of economic development. It creates wealth and is a major source of household income. Over the past four years, we have pursued a proactive employment policy and created over 13 million new urban jobs every year for four years in a roll. This year, we will continue to give high priority to employment. The goal is to achieve fairly sufficient employment and keep unemployment at a low level.

這幾年我們一直處在新成長勞動力的高峰,今年的就業壓力仍然比較大,光高校畢業生就達795萬,創歷史新高,還有500萬左右的中職畢業生,加上去過剩產能需要安置幾十萬轉崗職工等等。我們要營造有利于創業就業的環境,不是靠政府去提供“鐵飯碗”,而是讓人民群眾用勞動和智慧去創造或者說打造“金飯碗”。這幾年我們就是通過創造崗位,實現了比較充分的就業。這里,我想請外國記者朋友能夠多報道中國的就業崗位是靠自己創出來的。

In the past several years, record numbers of job-seekers have entered the labor force, which is a big challenge for us. This year, we are going to have 7.95 million college graduates, the highest number in history. Five million will graduate from vocational schools. And several hundred thousand workers will be laid off in the process of cutting overcapacity.

The government’s job is not to hand out the “iron rice bowl” or permanent jobs to the people, but to create enabling conditions for the people to use their own ingenuity and hard work to create or secure “gold rice bowls” so to speak. The employment rate in the past years has been fairly high because we have leveraged the enthusiasm for entrepreneurial and innovation activities. I would encourage the media, in particular, foreign media, to report the fact that Chinese jobs are mainly created by the Chinese themselves.

我們完全有能力擴大就業,不會也不允許出現大規模群體性失業,對于一時不能就業、生計沒有著落的群眾,政府會負起責任,保障他們的基本生活。

The Chinese government has the ability to support more job creation. There will not be, nor will we allow mass unemployment. For those who have difficulty getting jobs or making ends meet, the government will do its part and provide for their basic needs.

【新加坡《聯合早報》記者】今年是本屆政府的收官之年。您認為過去四年多最重要的成就是什么?最難攻克的又是什么?

【Lianhe Zaobao】Mr. Premier, this year is the last year in the term of this government. My question is, what has been the most important achievement of the past four years? And what has been the greatest challenge?

【李克強】你問的問題雖然簡短,但比較大。如果說到四年來施政的主要成果,那就是在以習近平同志為核心的黨中央領導下,全國上下共同努力,我們不斷創新宏觀調控方式,中國經濟運行保持在合理區間,始終是中高速增長,四年來增速波動也就是1個百分點左右,可以說是平穩的。而且這不是靠“大水漫灌”的強刺激來獲得的,而是通過推動產業、消費升級,使經濟結構優化取得新進展,通過加快新舊動能轉換促進經濟出現向好勢頭,更重要的是帶動了5000多萬人的城鎮新增就業。

Premier Li Keqiang: It’s a short but big question. The most important achievement of the past four years is that under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and with the joint efforts of our people, we have developed new approaches to macroeconomic management and maintained steady economic performance within the proper parameters and a medium-high growth rate. The variation in annual growth rate, for example, is only about one percentage point. We have achieved such steady growth not by resorting to massive, economy-wide stimulus, but by industrial and consumption upgrading, which has contributed to the improvement of China’s economic structure. We have encouraged the new drivers of economic growth to take the place of traditional ones. Most importantly, we have generated as many as 50 million new urban jobs.

這幾年,我一直聽到中國經濟會“硬著陸”的聲音,可以說不絕于耳。去年在世界經濟和貿易增長出現7年來增速最低的情況下,中國仍然保持中高速增長。這幾年的實踐可以證明,中國經濟“硬著陸”論可以休矣。中國經濟不會“硬著陸”,我們會長期保持中高速增長,并邁向中高端水平。

Over the years, some people have predicted, once and again, that the Chinese economy will see a “hard landing”. The truth is, we managed a medium-high growth rate last year in spite of the fact that world economic and trade growth hit a seven-year low. I hope this will put an end to any more predictions of a hard landing. The Chinese economy will continue to enjoy medium-high growth and move to a medium-high level.

當然,并不是說我們沒有問題和挑戰,所以要推動改革。說到最難的,還是在深化改革方面。比如說簡政放權、放管結合、優化服務的改革,這不僅會觸動利益,而且要觸動靈魂。要讓權力不能任性,就得把那些不應該有的權力砍掉,有些涉及到部門利益,要壓縮尋租空間。這不是一個簡單的過程,從中央政府一直到地方、到基層,都要這樣做,要打通“最后一公里”。

At the same time, we also face many challenges and difficulties, hence the need for continuous reform. This is the biggest challenge for us. The reform to streamline administration, enhance oversight and provide better services is bound to upset vested interests; it also demands a fundamental change in our mindset. There should be no more arbitrary use of government power, the government must not overreach, and the room for rent-seeking must be squeezed. This is easier said than done. We must make sure that all levels of the government move in lockstep to travel the last mile and get rid of any remaining obstacles.

我到有的地方去看,在簡政放權中一次封了109個公章,用一個公章代替。中國太大,不知道類似公章過多的情況哪些地方還有。你們可能也都記得,在前幾年兩會上,曾有人展示了一個項目審批“萬里長征圖”,據說現在變成“百里”了,百里也不短啊,還要繼續推進。我前面已經講了,不管有什么樣的阻力,我們都有足夠的韌性推動改革。改革就是要解放和發展生產力,調動廣大人民的積極性,讓群眾得到實惠。為政之要就是要舍小利、顧大義、順民心。

During an inspection trip, I was shown that, instead of requiring a stamp of approval from 108 government departments, the streamlined process required only one. With China being so big, there may be similar situations of excessive requirements for government approval elsewhere. You may remember that a few years ago, a delegate at the Two Sessions produced a so-called Long-March matrix, showing all the intricate procedures for administrative approval. Although things have been streamlined significantly and the long march has been substantially reduced, it’s still too much. Let me repeat that no matter what obstacle may lie ahead, we are determined to push the reform through. The goal is to unleash and grow productive forces, bring out the initiative of the people, and deliver greater benefits to the general public. After all, governance is all about letting go of narrow departmental interests for the greater good and always responding to the people’s call.

【《深圳特區報》記者】去年10月您到深圳參加“全國雙創周”主會場的活動。據統計,一周之內有50萬人參加了這次活動,場面非常火爆。過去一年大眾創業、萬眾創新蓬勃發展,現在共享經濟發展也很快,但是也有人有不同的看法。請問總理,您覺得“雙創”的熱情會持久嗎?

【Shenzhen News】Mr. Premier, last October, you attended the National Week of Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Shenzhen. It is estimated that as many as 500,000 people participated in the national week’s activities, making it a very popular event. Over the past year, this initiative of mass entrepreneurship and innovation has caught on, and the sharing economy has seen rapid expansion. But some people may see these developments in a different way. Mr. Premier, do you think this public enthusiasm for entrepreneurship and innovation will continue?

【李克強】“雙創”可以說是應運而生,在全球化、“互聯網+”的時代,我們推動“放管服”改革,促進了大眾創業、萬眾創新。這3年多來,每天平均有4萬個以上市場主體注冊登記,相當于每年新增1000多萬個。我和有些外國的領導人談到這件事,他們很驚訝,這相當于他們國家中小微企業的總量。其實“雙創”不僅是中小微企業的事,也是大企業的事,現在許多大企業也在推動“雙創”,在線上創造很多眾創空間,讓線上的工人當創客,和訂單背后的市場需求結合起來,更適應消費者的需要。“雙創”覆蓋了一二三產業、大中小企業,有著很強的生命力。

Premier Li Keqiang: We believe that our initiative of mass entrepreneurship and innovation is a response to the call of this age of economic globalization and Internet Plus. The government’s further reform of streamlining administration and delegating powers is also designed to boost this public enthusiasm for business start-ups and innovation. Over the past three years and more, on an average daily basis, more than 40,000 market entities have got registered, adding up to 10 million every year. When I share this figure with foreign leaders, they were truly amazed as this is equivalent to the total number of SMEs in their countries. Not only SMEs are doing entrepreneurial and innovation activities. Big companies are actively engaged in this too. They have opened up vast online makerspaces to enable a matching between the innovative capabilities of their employees with the demands of customers in the marketplace. This initiative runs through the development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries and involves businesses of all sizes. So I believe it will continue to thrive.

“雙創”不僅帶動了大量就業,促進創新驅動發展戰略深入實施,它也是一場改革,因為它抓住了“人”這個生產力當中最重要的因素,讓人的聰明才智和活力充分展現出來,讓大家有改變命運、獲得縱向上升的平等機會。它也創新了生產模式,許多新業態,像共享經濟、“互聯網+”等等,可以說層出不窮,這些新業態有的是新舊動能轉換過程當中產生的,新舊嫁接,有的是“老樹開新花”,總的看它適應了市場的需求,適應了消費者個性化、多樣化的要求。

This initiative has generated a great deal of jobs. It is also an important means to implement the strategy of innovation-driven development. This initiative is a process of reform too because it captures the most important element in productive forces, that is, human resources. It helps bring out the wisdom and motivation of each individual and gives them an opportunity for a fair shot at success and upward mobility. It has also boosted the development of many new production and business models, like the “Internet Plus” and sharing economy. Some of the new business models appear in the synergy between old and new growth drivers. Others are the result of traditional drivers of growth being given renewed life with the application of new technologies. This initiative has, in a nutshell, responded well to market demand and individualistic needs of our customers.

另外,新業態的成長也倒逼了政府職能轉變。確實,這些新業態很多是過去未知的,有爭議是正常的,我們還是要以開放的態度、包容的理念審慎監管,促使它們健康發展。

The growing new business models have also created pressure on the government to enhance its capability, because after all, many of the forms of business are new things. When it comes to such new things, it’s only normal for people to have different views. For the government, it needs to exercise careful regulation in an open-minded and accommodating way to promote their healthy development.

我一直在想,也一直這么認為,中國有1.7億受過高等教育和擁有高技能的人才,與近8億的勞動力結合起來,能創造的財富,激發的能量是難以估算的,也會給市場,包括世界市場帶來巨大的機遇。中國人民勤勞智慧,有著追求美好生活的不竭動力,政府就是要創造環境,讓人民群眾創業創新的熱情持久不衰。當然“雙創”和許多新事物一樣,發展過程當中一些方面、一些企業會遇到曲折,但是大方向是正確的。

I have all along believed that China’s nearly 800 million labor force, including the 170 million who have received higher education or possess high professional skills, represents a tremendous source of wealth and energy and enormous opportunities for China itself and the international market too. The Chinese people are intelligent and hard-working and they have an inexhaustible drive for pursuing a better life. The government needs to create an enabling environment for our people to stay enthusiastic for entrepreneurship and innovation. Some people and some enterprises may experience difficulties as this initiative unfolds, which is only normal for the development of new things. But we have the confidence to ensure that our initiative continue to move in the right direction.

【鳳凰衛視記者】今年政府工作報告中,您首次提到了“港獨”問題,指出“港獨是沒有出路的”,這是否意味著政策上會有什么變化?比如在落實“一國兩制”這個原則問題上是否會更加強調“一國”而弱化“兩制”?或者以后中央對香港的支持會減少?

【Phoenix TV】This year’s government work report, for the first time, contains a reference to the notion of “Hong Kong independence”, pointing out that Hong Kong independence will lead nowhere. I wonder if this indicates a change in the policy of the central government. Does it mean that the central government, in implementing the principle of “one country, two systems”, will put more emphasis on the part of “one country” and downplay the part of “two systems”? Does it mean that the central government will reduce its support to Hong Kong?

【李克強】對“一國兩制”的方針要全面理解和執行,我在政府工作報告中已經說了,“一國兩制”的實踐要不動搖、不走樣、不變形。

至于說支持香港發展,中央政府會不斷地加大力度,繼續出臺許多有利于香港發展、有利于內地和香港合作的舉措。比如說去年我們出臺了“深港通”。我們要進一步探索開放債券市場,這是國家的需要,香港也有平臺。我們準備今年在香港和內地試行“債券通”,也就是說允許境外資金在境外購買內地的債券,這是第一次。香港是近水樓臺先得月,這有利于維護香港國際金融中心的地位,有利于香港居民有更多的投資渠道從而受惠,有利于香港的長期繁榮穩定。

Premier Li Keqiang: The principle of “one country, two systems” needs to be understood and implemented in its entirety. As I have also said in the government work report, this principle needs to be steadfastly applied without being bent or distorted. The central government will continue to enhance its support to Hong Kong’s development and will introduce more measures in the interest of Hong Kong’s development and its cooperation with the mainland. Last year, we launched the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect. This year, we will actively explore greater cooperation over the bond markets. That is what the country needs, and Hong Kong has a platform for it too. We are considering establishing a bond market connect between the mainland and Hong Kong this year, allowing, for the first time, overseas capital to buy mainland’s bonds overseas. Hong Kong stands to be the first to benefit from such arrangement thanks to its unique strengths. We believe this will help maintain Hong Kong’s status as an international financial center, diversify investment channels for Hong Kong residents, and contribute to Hong Kong’s lasting prosperity and stability.

【俄通社—塔斯社記者】請問您如何評價中俄關系?兩國是否能夠在世界經濟不穩定、能源價格波動的背景下取得經貿關系發展?

【TASS of Russia】Mr. Premier, how do you evaluate overall China-Russia relations? Do you think that the economic relations between the two countries will enjoy further growth in the face of uncertainties in the international economic landscape and volatility of global energy prices?

【李克強】說到中俄關系,兩國互為最大的近鄰,是全面戰略協作伙伴關系。中俄關系的健康穩定發展,不僅有利于地區,也有利于世界。去年兩國元首多次會晤,達成許多重要共識。中俄總理定期會晤多年來一直如期舉行,這本身表明了中俄關系的穩定性。

Premier Li: China and Russia are each other’s biggest neighbors. We enjoy a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination. Sound and steady growth of China-Russia relations is good for the region and good for the world. Last year, presidents of the two countries met several times and reached important agreement on many issues. And the prime ministers’ annual meeting has been held as scheduled every year for many years. I believe all this is evidence of the stability of China-Russia relations.

至于說到兩國的經貿關系,這些年世界經濟復蘇低迷,貿易增長乏力,中俄經貿合作由于能源價格下跌等因素也受到一些影響。記得在去年記者會上,我曾經說希望中俄經貿合作當年能夠有轉折性變化,現在應該說實現了,當然這是我們共同努力的結果。特別是今年前兩個月,中俄貿易額有大幅增長,這表明中俄雙方經貿合作的潛力很大,互補性很強,雙方所設定的經貿合作目標是可以實現的。

Talking about economic relations and trade between our two countries, over the years, we have faced sluggish global economic recovery and anemic growth of global trade. So naturally our economic relations and trade have been affected by the decline in international energy prices and some other factors. I recall that last year, on the same occasion, I expressed the hope for our business relations to turn the corner and achieve strong growth by the end of the year. Thanks to our joint efforts, this has been achieved. In the first two months of this year, there was actually a big surge in China-Russia trade. This shows the tremendous untapped potential of our trade ties and the great complementarity of our economies. I am confident that the goals we set for our two-way trade can be achieved.

【財新雜志記者】現在人民幣匯率有一定的下跌壓力,但是要穩住匯率,要么就是消耗外匯儲備,要么就要加強外匯管制。您如何看待匯率下跌、外儲下降或者外匯管制的代價?這幾害相權您會作何選擇?

【Caixin】China’s RMB exchange rate has been under pressure of depreciation. To keep exchange rate stable, one has to either dig into foreign exchange reserves or tighten control on the use of foreign currencies. Among the three scenarios of a weaker currency, drop in foreign exchange reserves and tightened currency control, how would you weigh the costs of each scenario and what choice will you make?

【李克強】首先關于匯率。去年因為國際貨幣市場動蕩,特別是美元走高,許多貨幣尤其是主要國際貨幣對美元的匯率大幅度貶值,而人民幣匯率貶值幅度是比較小的。我們不希望通過貶值來增加出口,這不利于企業轉型升級。我們也不希望打貿易戰,這不利于國際貿易和貨幣體系的穩定。我們堅持推進人民幣匯率形成機制的改革,實行以市場供求為基礎、有管理的浮動匯率制度。可以說在人民幣匯率彈性加大的情況下,我們保持了人民幣匯率在合理均衡水平上的基本穩定。當然,這也得益于中國經濟基本面向好。人民幣匯率的基本穩定是對國際貨幣體系穩定的重要貢獻。

Premier Li Keqiang: First, on the exchange rate. Last year, there has been some volatility on international currency markets. Many currencies especially major global currencies have depreciated against the strengthening US dollar. The depreciation of the Chinese yuan against the dollar is a quite modest one. China has no intention to devalue its currency in order to boost exports, because that is not good for our companies’ transformation and upgrading. China has no intention to fight any trade war either, as that is not good for the stability of global trade and the international monetary system. China will continue to push forward the market-oriented reform of its exchange rate regime, and follow a market-based, managed floating exchange rate regime. As the floating band of the Chinese yuan widens, the RMB exchange rate has remained broadly stable at an adaptive and equilibrium level. That is attributable to the sound economic fundamentals in China. By keeping the RMB exchange rate broadly stable, China will continue to contribute to the stability of global monetary system.

至于說到外匯儲備,中國是世界上外匯儲備最多的國家。合理的外匯儲備規模到底需要多少,這有一個實踐探索的過程。總之,我們的外匯儲備是充裕的,是足以支付進口和滿足短期償債需要的,遠遠高于國際標準。

China still has the largest foreign exchange reserves among all countries in the world. As to what is the right size for our foreign exchange reserves, I believe that will continue to be up for exploration. All in all, China has ample foreign exchange reserves for meeting relevant needs, like paying for imports or paying off its short-term external debts. And China’s foreign exchange reserves are way above the international standard.

說到我們對于用匯進行真實性、合規性審查,實際上這是法律法規早就規定的。我在這里明確,企業正常的用匯、居民到國外求學旅游等的合理用匯是有保證的。人民幣在國際貨幣體系中是有分量的,匯率會保持基本穩定。

As for our recent authenticity and compliance review of the use of foreign currency, that has been a legal provision for a long time, not something new. I want to emphasize that the need of our businesses for normal use of foreign currency and that of individuals to study or travel overseas is assured. The RMB has solid weight in the international monetary system and the RMB exchange rate will remain generally stable.

【路透社記者】今年中國政府準備進一步減少無效供給,擴大有效供給。在這一過程中,政府需要確保下崗工人能找到新的工作,并確保他們的生計。如果我是一名礦工或是鋼廠工人,我能在本省找到什么樣的新工作呢?今年預計哪些部門會出現工作崗位增加?

【Reuters】This year, the Chinese government will further reduce ineffective supply and expand effective supply. While doing that, the government needs to ensure that laid-off workers will be re-employed and their basic living needs will be met. If I were a miner or a worker of a steel plant, what kind of new jobs can I expect to get in my province? In what sectors do you expect an increase in job opportunities?

【李克強】你把就業問題更加人性化、個性化了。去年,我們推動供給側結構性改革的一個重要任務就是化解鋼鐵、煤炭行業的過剩和落后產能,我們最關心的就是在去產能過程中如何安置好職工。所以中央財政拿了1000億元專項資金用于員工轉崗安置,并且要求地方政府配套。去年,有72萬多去過剩產能過程中的職工得到了妥善安置,當然,還有一些職工因為多種因素沒有到新的就業崗位上,包括有的職工和企業有比較深的感情,想多留一段,但他們的生活都是有著落的。

Premier Li Keqiang: You have given the employment issue a human face. Last year, we took vigorous efforts to cut excessive and outdated capacity in steel and coal sectors as a priority task for supply-side structural reform. A key concern for us in this process is the proper resettlement of laid-off workers. The central government has earmarked 100 billion yuan in a special fund to provide assistance to them and asked local governments to set up matching funds. Last year, proper arrangements were made for 720,000 workers who were laid off as a result of cutting overcapacity. For various reasons, there are still workers yet to find new jobs. In some cases, given the strong attachment between the workers and their employers, some may prefer to stay on a bit longer with their former employers. Still, their essential living needs are provided for.

今年去產能還要擴大到煤電領域,加上去年一些還沒安置的職工,累計可能會有近百萬人需要安置。我們的辦法還是創造新的崗位,因為我們在推動發展新動能。剛才我講了“雙創”帶動了大量新的就業,實際上也轉移了許多傳統動能的就業,新舊動能轉換為傳統產業帶來了新的活力和生機,催生了新的就業崗位。當然我們沒有掉以輕心,還會繼續運用好專項基金,并要求地方政府做好配套。同時,企業也要盡社會責任。

This year, effort to cut overcapacity will be extended to the coal-fired power generation sector. Factoring in the number carried over from last year, we need to provide assistance to nearly one million people in total. The key is to continue to generate new jobs, including through our efforts to foster new drivers of growth. As I said before, the initiative of mass entrepreneurship and innovation has both created a lot of new jobs and stimulated job creation in traditional sectors, which has helped to revive these industries.

We will not relent our efforts and will continue to put to effective use the central government special fund complemented by funding from local governments. At the same time, businesses also need to fulfill their social responsibilities.

如果你是一名煤礦工人,這個礦被淘汰,或者暫時停產了,我看你有很強的、靈活的就業能力,我建議你到新動能企業去,或者到老動能中產生的新職業中去。而且中國很多企業是有企業文化的,他們對老職工有感情,去新崗位就業了,企業仍然還會給一些補貼,扶上馬、送一程。總而言之,把職工安置好,是我們推進供給側結構性改革、推動化解和淘汰過剩產能中最關鍵的問題。

So if you were a coal miner, your mine is going to be closed or its production suspended, and you are capable of flexible employment, I will advise you to find a job in sectors with new drivers of growth or move to new jobs generated in the upgraded traditional industries. Moreover, Chinese companies, whose corporate culture encourages close employer-employee relationships, will continue to provide subsidies to their loyal employees for some time to give them a leg-up.

All in all, easing the transition for laid-off workers will remain our top concern in cutting overcapacity and pursuing the supply-side structural reform.

【澎湃新聞記者】今年兩會前夕,中國政府網聯合27家網絡媒體共同發起“我向總理說句話”建言征集活動,澎湃新聞和今日頭條就其中與民生密切相關問題進行了網上投票。到目前,已經有2131萬網友投給了“房屋產權70年到期后怎么辦?”,排第一位。請問總理,國家準備怎么解決這一問題?

【ThePaper.cn】In the run-up to this year’s two Sessions, the Chinese government’s portal website, together with 27 online media outlets, conducted an online survey on the theme of “What I wish to say to the Premier” to solicit public comments and suggestions for the government. Viewers were further requested by ThePaper.cn and Toutiao.com to vote on entries on people’s daily lives. The question of “what will happen to my home when the 70-year term of land use right expires”, has received the most votes, or 21.31 million in total. My question is, what will the government do to address this public concern?

【李克強】中國有句古話:有恒產者有恒心。包括網民在內的廣大群眾,對70年住宅土地使用權到期續期問題普遍關心是可以理解的。國務院已經要求有關部門作了回應,就是可以續期,不需申請,沒有前置條件,也不影響交易。當然,也可能有人說,你們只是說,有法律保障嗎?我在這里強調,國務院已經責成相關部門就不動產保護相關法律抓緊研究提出議案。

Premier Li Keqiang: Our ancestors believe that one shall have his peace of mind when he possesses a piece of land. So it’s understandable for internet users and other members of the general public to feel concerned about the expiry of the 70-year term land use right of their residences. The State Council had asked the relevant departments to respond to these concerns. Specifically, the term can be renewed, and no application or pre-set conditions needs to be filed or met. And the expiry will not affect any transactions over the property. Some people may wonder whether there will be legal safeguards for this right. I want to tell you that the State Council has entrusted relevant departments to speed up their study on relevant laws and come up with a proposal.

【泰國《經理報》記者】奧巴馬總統任職期間提出了“亞太再平衡”的戰略,特朗普政府現在正在制定對亞洲外交政策,泰國和其他東南亞國家都希望本地區保持和平和穩定,不愿意看到中美在這一地區發生沖突,更不愿意在其中“選邊站隊”。您怎么看中國在亞太地區發揮的作用?中國對于本地區理想化的秩序和規則是怎樣的?中美如何在這個地區繼續和平共處?

【Manager Daily of Thailand】The Obama administration adopted a rebalancing policy towards the Asia-Pacific region while the Trump administration is yet to spell out its policy in Asia. Thailand and other countries in Southeast Asia hope this region maintains peace and stability. We don’t want to see any conflict between China and the US here, even more reluctant to take sides. How do you view China’s present role in the Asia-Pacific region? What is China’s ideal order and role for the region? How can China and the US live in peace in this region?

【李克強】亞太地區是地區國家共有的家園,我們不希望、也不愿意看到冷戰思維下所謂“選邊站隊”的事情發生,有什么事情要按是非曲直來說話,總的還是要維護亞太地區的和平和穩定。在亞太地區,我們始終把東盟作為中國周邊外交的優先方向,支持東盟共同體建設,在區域合作中發揮中心地位作用。我們希望看到的亞太地區是一個穩定、有秩序的地區,是一個可以協商一致達成原則的地區,是一個有能力管控分歧的地區,也是一個有智慧解決爭端的地區。

Premier Li Keqiang:  The Asia-Pacific is the common home for all countries in this region. China does not want to see any party feeling compelled to choose sides under the influence of the Cold-War mentality. We believe regional affairs should be handled on the merits of each case and in a way that is conducive to continued peace and stability. As for ASEAN, we always put ASEAN in a priority position in China’s neighborhood diplomacy, and support ASEAN community building and its centrality in regional cooperation. China hopes to see an Asia-Pacific that enjoys order and stability, that is able to build consensus through consultation and properly manage differences, and has the wisdom to resolve disputes.

中國和東盟正在推進《南海行為準則》磋商,已經取得了實質性進展,我們還會繼續積極推進。我們希望維護南海的和平穩定,有關爭端由當事方直接對話解決,各方共同維護地區的和平穩定與發展。

China and ASEAN have been pushing forward the consultation on a Code of Conduct in the South China Sea. Substantive progress has been made in this regard and we will keep working on that. It is our hope that peace and stability in the South China Sea could be maintained, specific disputes be resolved through dialogue by the parties directly concerned and all countries in the region work together for peace, stability and development.

中美在亞太地區合作多年了,我們有許多合作的交匯點。不少美國跨國公司把亞太地區銷售總部放在中國,我們希望中美合作的共同利益不斷擴大,使東盟國家能從中得到機遇,而不是感到麻煩。

For years, China and the United States have been cooperating in many areas in the Asia-Pacific region. Many US multinationals place their Asia-Pacific headquarters in China. We hope that the areas of cooperation between the two countries will continue to widen, providing more opportunities for ASEAN countries instead of being a cause of concern for them.

【新華社記者】我們在調研采訪中了解到,現在一些企業抱怨稅費負擔過重,辛苦半天也掙不了多少錢。也有消費者抱怨,很多高品質的產品在國內生產不了。請問總理,您對此怎么看?有什么進一步改進的政策措施?

【Xinhua News Agency】We’ve discovered that there is growing complaint on the part of businesses about the heavy burden of taxes and fees. They say that even with hard work, they couldn’t make much money. And we’ve also heard complaints from Chinese consumers that some high-end goods are not yet domestically made. What is your response to their complaints, Mr. Premier? And what steps will the government take to resolve the issue?

【李克強】我在政府工作報告中用了很多篇幅提出了許多措施來強調,今年要推進更大力度的減稅降費,特別是那些名目繁多、企業不堪重負的行政事業性收費。這些收費本來是有用途的,有的是用來“養人”的,減少收費,那政府就要過緊日子。我明確提出,中央政府要帶頭,一般性支出一律減少5%以上。我在參加代表團討論時,許多地方政府也都有這樣的表示。我們就是要用政府的“痛”換來企業的“順”,讓企業輕裝上陣,提高競爭力。我們還要通過像降網費、電費、物流成本等措施,力爭今年減稅降費能夠達到萬億元人民幣。當然,根本上還要降低制度性交易成本。

Premier Li Keqiang: I devoted a significant portion of my government work report on further cutting taxes and fees, particularly the myriad of excessive administrative fees that are exacting a heavy burden on businesses. These fees are used to cover certain expenses, such as keeping up some payrolls. To cut down fees, the government must tighten its belt. I have made it clear that the central government will take the lead in doing so and cut its general expenditures by no less than 5% this year. And in my discussions with officials from local governments, they all agreed that this is what they also need to do. So we will use this painful adjustment on the part of the government to make things easier for businesses to enhance their competitiveness. Furthermore, we will take steps this year to cut broadband, electricity and logistics costs. Our goal is to bring down taxes and fees by up to one trillion RMB yuan. A most fundamental measure is to reduce government-imposed transaction cost.

至于消費者抱怨中國的一些產品質量不優,這說明我們的企業需要讓產品進入質量時代,這也是供給側結構性改革的重要內容。我們實施《中國制造2025》,就是要提升企業產品和裝備的質量。國際上有一種輿論,說是不是中國會減少進口,開放有所收縮,這是誤解。提高中國產品的質量,促進產業邁向中高端,必然要更大地打開開放的大門,更多地引進國外先進技術和產品。當然我們會嚴格保護知識產權,讓中外企業雙贏。對于普通消費者所需要的一些優質產品一時供給不上,我們還可能考慮降低關稅、增加進口。總之,要讓消費者有更多選擇,從中受惠。更重要的是讓我們的企業下決心,通過發揚工匠精神,使自己的產品贏得消費者的信賴。

As for the complaints of some Chinese consumers about the quality of domestically made goods, I believe this is an important message to all Chinese businesses to enhance quality control. It is also an important part of the supply-side structural reform. We’ve launched the Made in China 2025 strategy, which aims to raise the quality of Chinese products and equipment. Some people question if that means China will reduce import and retreat in its opening-up. That is a misunderstanding. On the contrary, raising our own products’ quality and upgrading our own industries to a medium-high level would actually require us to open even wider to the outside world and introduce more advanced technologies and products. In this process, we will see to it that intellectual property rights will be well protected for the benefit of their proprietors. As for those high-end products which cannot be manufactured locally for the time being, we may consider lowering tariffs to boost import. In a word, we need to give our consumers more options and more benefits, and most importantly, harden the resolve of Chinese companies to win over consumers with their commitment to high quality and workermanship.

【臺灣《聯合報》記者】去年以來兩岸關系越來越復雜嚴峻,前景令人擔憂。面對這樣的形勢,大陸如何維護兩岸關系的和平發展,以及兩岸同胞的福祉?

【United Daily News of Taiwan】Over the past year, relations across the Taiwan Straits have become complex and grave with an uncertain future. Under such circumstances, what will the mainland do to uphold peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and safeguard the well-being of people on both sides?

【李克強】兩岸是骨肉同胞,血濃于水。不管島內形勢如何變化,都割斷不了兩岸的親情,改變不了兩岸同屬一個中國的歷史和現狀,也改變不了我們維護兩岸關系和平發展的決心和誠意。

Premier Li Keqiang:  People on the two sides of the Taiwan Straits are brothers and sisters. Blood is thicker than water. No matter how the situation on Taiwan may evolve, it cannot sever the fraternal bond between the two sides, or change the history or the reality that both sides of the Taiwan Straits belong to one and the same China. Nor will it weaken our resolve and sincerity for peaceful growth of cross-Straits relations.

我們對臺方針是一貫的、明確的,就是要堅持體現一個中國原則的“九二共識”政治基礎,堅決反對“臺獨”,維護臺海和平,維護兩岸關系和平發展,增進兩岸同胞的福祉。

Our policy towards Taiwan has been consistent and clear-cut, that is, we will stick to the political foundation of the 1992 Consensus, which embodies the one-China principle, firmly oppose Taiwan independence, uphold peace across the Taiwan Straits and peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and improve the well-being of people on both sides.

兩岸的和平發展確實給兩岸同胞帶來了很多新的機遇。據不完全統計,每年大概有500萬臺灣同胞往返于大陸和島內。我們會出臺更多政策讓臺灣同胞在大陸就業、創業、工作、生活,享受一家人一樣的便利條件。對臺商來大陸投資,我們是歡迎的。我記得去年在記者會上曾經有人提出,希望繼續保持對臺商投資的優惠政策。我重申:我們會繼續提供優惠,讓臺商、臺灣同胞和大陸一起共享發展的機遇。終歸我們是一家人。

The peaceful growth of cross-Straits relations has brought new opportunities for people on both sides. According to current statistics, people on Taiwan make 5 million visits across the Straits every year. We will introduce more policies to provide more convenience for people in Taiwan to work and live on the mainland as family. We welcome investment from Taiwan businesses. I recall that at last year’s press conference, I was asked whether the mainland will keep preferential policies toward Taiwan businesses. I wish to reiterate here that such policies will be maintained to enable Taiwan businesses and people to share in China’s development opportunities with their compatriots on the mainland. After all, we are one family.

【法蘭西廣播公司記者】歐盟是中國第二大貿易伙伴,但歐盟對華貿易赤字高達1370億歐元,這是歐方的統計數字。所以歐盟一些企業對此頗有微詞。請問中國如何進一步改進對歐企業的市場準入,以及對于外商投資給予更好的對等待遇?

【Radio France】 The European Union is China’s second largest commercial partner with a trade deficit of 137 billion euros in favor of China and a large number of European businesses complain about that. What is China proposing to improve market access condition for European businesses? And what about better reciprocity of foreign investments?

【李克強】你剛才說的中歐貿易逆差是歐方的統計,講的很正確。當然,中方從不刻意追求貿易順差,而且希望看到貿易平衡,否則不可持續。如果說賺錢的話,我想歐洲企業在中國不僅有錢可賺,而且還是賺大頭,因為你們處于價值鏈的高端。如果你們歐洲放寬對華高技術出口,那貿易不平衡的狀況就會有明顯改善。

Premier Li Keqiang: You rightly referred to the trade deficit figure as EU statistics. The fact of the matter is, China never goes after trade surpluses. What we want is balanced trade, as unbalanced trade would not be sustainable. Talking about profits, I think European companies have not just earned profits in China, but have also taken the lion’s share of such profits, as they are at the higher end of the industrial chain. If the EU could ease its restrictions on high-tech exports to China, I believe that would make a big difference in our trade balance.

中國提出和歐盟推進投資協定談判,希望能夠得到積極的回應。有一個高水平的雙邊投資協定,那必將會有助于雙方擴大相互開放。即便暫時沒有這個協定,我們也會不斷擴大對歐盟企業的準入,讓歐盟企業在華投資和中國企業一樣,只要注冊了,就一視同仁。中歐之間存在貿易摩擦,我們有經驗去妥善解決。我這里特別強調,中國始終愿意看到一個團結繁榮穩定的歐盟和強大的歐元,支持歐洲一體化進程,因為這有利于經濟全球化、世界多極化和文明多樣化。我對歐盟的前景是樂觀的,我們對中歐關系的發展前景也是看好的。

China has proposed to the EU to push forward the BIT negotiations. We hope to receive a positive response. A high-standard BIT will help two-way opening-up between the two sides. And pending that, we will continue to widen market access for European businesses and ensure that European-invested companies registered in China receive the same treatment as domestic Chinese enterprises. With respect to trade frictions between the two sides, we have gained good experience in properly addressing them.

Here, I want to emphasize that China has all along supported a united, prosperous and stable European Union, a strong euro, and the European integration process. We believe that is good for economic globalization, for a multipolar world and for diversity of civilizations. We feel optimistic about the future of the EU and the future of China-EU relations.

【《新京報》記者】這幾年霧霾成了百姓心中的一個痛點,嚴重地影響了大家的生活,但是每當重大活動來的時候藍天也就回來了,大家都興高采烈地拍照、刷朋友圈。請問總理,怎么樣才能讓持續的藍天不再是奢侈品呢?

【Beijing News】In recent years, smog has caused great public concern and severely affected people’s lives. Yet we also discover that whenever a major event is held, the smog would disappear and people would take pictures of blue skies and post them online with much excitement. So I want to ask you, Mr. Premier, what can you do to make sure that blue skies are no longer a luxury?

【李克強】霧霾問題的確是百姓的痛點。藍天和空氣一樣,對每個人都是平等的,我們在座的各位都希望看到更多的藍天,但中國在發展過程中確實遇到了環保特別是霧霾問題的挑戰。我在政府工作報告當中講了五條措施,會堅定地向前推進,真正打一場“藍天保衛戰”。但是也坦率地告訴各位,這需要有一個過程。

Premier Li Keqiang: I fully understand that the smog is a huge irritant in people’s lives. Like air, blue skies treat everyone equally. We all want to see more blue-sky days. In the course of development, China is confronted with severe environmental challenges, smog in particular. In my government work report, I laid out five key measures for smog control and we will push them through with full determination to fight and win the battle on smog. But to be honest with you, that will take time.

我們治理霧霾目前重點對著燃煤、尾氣排放、揚塵等,但今年我參加兩會討論的時候,有科學家說,除此之外還有其他很重要的因素,霧霾的形成機理我們還沒完全搞透。他說中國北方冬季的霧霾成因在全世界都是特殊的,當然,這個因素我不便在這兒講,科學家還要做充分的論證。但是,我想明確,國家為此將設立專項基金,不惜重金組織最優秀的相關科學家攻關,抓緊把霧霾形成的未知因素找出來,使治理霧霾更加有效。

The main targets for smog control would be to tackle coal-burning, vehicle emissions and dust. In addition, during this year’s Two Sessions, I was told by a scientist that apart from these obvious causes, we have not yet fully understood how smog is formed, which is as important. He said, the smog in Northern China during winter is unique compared to that in other parts of the world. Of course, this is not the proper venue to expand on this subject, and the scientists will have to conduct further research. But one thing I can tell you is that we will set up a special fund to bring in the best scientists to dig into this matter regardless of cost and uncover the unknown factors to make our campaign against smog more effective.

大自然的陰晴風雨不是人類能支配的,但是我們可以支配我們的行為,可以轉變我們的發展方式。我和大家的心情一樣,霧霾要治理,藍天在未來不會也不應該成為奢侈品。

We may not be able to control the weather, but we can adjust our behavior and our way of development. I feel the same way as you all do. Smog must be put under control and blue skies should no longer be a luxury, nor will it be.

【《中國消費者報》記者】今天是“3·15”,請總理給消費者說幾句話。

China Consumer News: Today is the Consumers’ Rights Day. Can you say a few words to consumers, Mr. Premier?

【李克強】我和大家一樣都是消費者,都需要權益保護,用網絡語言說:我們要給優質產品“點贊”,把不良奸商“拉黑”。大家共同努力,讓我們的優質產品一天一天多起來,讓我們的生活一年比一年好。

Premier Li Keqiang:  You and I are all consumers, and we all need protection of our rights. To use popular Internet language, we should give “thumbs-up” to quality products and “blacklist” those bad traders. With joint efforts, we will enjoy more quality products and a better life year after year.

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